• Authors: Xu, N., Hua, Z., Ba, G., Zhang, S., Liu, Z., Thiele, C. J., Li, Z.
  • Year: 2019
  • Journal: J Exp Clin Cancer Res 38 118
  • Applications: in vitro / siRNA / jetPRIME
  • Cell types:
    1. Name: RD
    2. Name: Rh41
      Description: Human rhabdomyosarcoma cells


BACKGROUND: Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in children with poor survival. New treatment approaches are urgently needed to improve treatment efficacy in RMS patients. DMAMCL is a novel agent from Asteraceae family that has been tested in phase I clinical trials in adult glioma in Australia. METHODS: Five RMS cell lines (RD, RH18, RH28, RH30 and RH41) were used. The in vitro anti-tumor effect of DMAMCL, alone or in combination with VCR or Epirubicin, was studied using MTS assay or IncuCyte-Zoom cell confluency assay, and further validated by xenograft-mouse model in vivo. Changes in caspase-3/7 activity, cell-cycle progression and generation of ROS after DMAMCL treatment were investigated. Bim mRNA expression was measured by RT-qPCR, and protein expressions of Bim and phosphorylated-NF-kappaB(p65) by Western blotting. Small interfering RNAs (siRNA) of Bim were used to study the role of Bim in DMAMCL-induced cell death. RESULTS: In vitro, DMAMCL treatment induced a dose-dependent increase in cell death that could be blocked by pan-caspase-inhibitor-Z-VAD-fmk in five RMS cell lines. The percent of cells in SubG1 phase and activities of caspase-3/7 increased after DMAMCL treatment; The combination of DMAMCL with VCR or Epirubicin significantly increased cell death compared to each reagent alone. In vivo, DMAMCL(75 mg/kg or 100 mg/kg) inhibited tumor growth and prolonged survival of mice bearing xenograft RMS tumors (RD, RH18, RH30, RH41). Compared to treatment with DMAMCL or VCR, a combination of two reagents caused significant inhibition of tumor growth (RD, RH41), even after treatment termination. The expression of Bim increased at protein level after DMAMCL treatment both in vitro and in vivo. The expression of p-NF-kappaB(p65) had a transient increase and the generation of ROS increased after DMAMCL treatment in vitro. Transfection of Bim siRNA into RMS cells blocked the DMAMCL-induced increase of Bim and partially attenuated the DMAMCL-induced cell death. CONCLUSION: DMAMCL had an anti-tumor growth effect in vitro and in vivo that potentially mediated by Bim, NF-kappaB pathway and ROS. A combination of DMAMCL with chemotherapeutic drugs significantly increased the treatment efficacy. Our study supports further clinical evaluation of DMAMCL in combination with conventional chemotherapy.