- Authors: Olsen, C., Memarzadeh, K., Ulu, A., Carr, H. S., Bean, A. J., Frost, J. A.
- Year: 2019
- Journal: Endocrinology 160 1031-1043
- Applications: in vitro / DNA / jetPRIME
- Cell type: HEK-293
Description: Human embryonic kidney Fibroblast
Known as: HEK293, 293
The Gi-coupled somatostatin receptor 2 (SST2) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that mediates many of somatostatin's neuroendocrine actions. Upon stimulation, SST2 is rapidly internalized and transported to early endosomes before being recycled to the plasma membrane. However, little is known about the intracellular itinerary of SST2 after it moves to the early endosomal compartment or the cytoplasmic proteins that regulate its trafficking. As postsynaptic density protein/discs large 1/zonula occludens-1 (PDZ) domain interactions often regulate the trafficking and signaling potential of GPCRs, we examined the role of the SST2 PDZ ligand and additional C-terminal residues in controlling its intracellular trafficking. We determined that SST2 can recycle to the plasma membrane via multiple pathways, including a LAMP1/Rab7-positive late endosome to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) pathway. Trafficking from the late endosome to the TGN is often regulated by the retromer complex of endosomal coat proteins, and disrupting the retromer components sorting nexins 1/2 inhibits the budding of SST2 from late endosomes. Moreover, trafficking through the late endosomal/TGN pathway is dependent on an intact PDZ ligand and C-terminal tail, as truncating either the 3 or 10 C-terminal amino acids of SST2 alters the pathway through which it recycles to the plasma membrane. Moreover, addition of these amino acids to a heterologous receptor is sufficient to redirect it from a degradation pathway to a recycling itinerary. Our results demonstrate that endosomal trafficking of SST2 is dependent on numerous regulatory mechanisms controlled by its C terminus and the retromer machinery.