• Authors: Keil, E., Hocker, R., Schuster, M., Essmann, F., Ueffing, N., Hoffman, B., Liebermann, D. A., Pfeffer, K., Schulze-Osthoff, K., Schmitz, I.
  • Year: 2013
  • Journal: Cell Death Differ 20 321-32
  • Applications: in vitro / DNA / jetPEI
  • Cell type: NIH/3T3
    Description: Murine embryonic fibroblasts
    Known as: NIH/3T3, 3T3


4x10^4 NIH/3T3 cells grown on a coverslip in a 12-well dish were transiently transfected with 4 mg plasmid DNA using jetPEI transfection reagent.


Autophagy is a lysosomal degradation pathway important for cellular homeostasis, mammalian development, cancer and immunity. Many molecular components of autophagy have been identified, but little is known about regulatory mechanisms controlling their effector functions. Here, we show that, in contrast to other p38 MAP kinase activators, the growth arrest and DNA damage 45 beta (Gadd45beta)-MAPK/ERK kinase kinase 4 (MEKK4) pathway specifically directs p38 to autophagosomes. This process results in an accumulation of autophagosomes through p38-mediated inhibition of lysosome fusion. Conversely, autophagic flux is increased in p38-deficient fibroblasts and Gadd45beta-deficient cells. We further identified the underlying mechanism and demonstrate that phosphorylation of the autophagy regulator autophagy-related (Atg)5 at threonine 75 through p38 is responsible for inhibition of starvation-induced autophagy. Thus, we show for the first time that Atg5 activity is controlled by phosphorylation and, moreover, that the spatial regulation of p38 by Gadd45beta/MEKK4 negatively regulates the autophagic process.