- Authors: Culver, C., Sundqvist, A., Mudie, S., Melvin, A., Xirodimas, D., Rocha, S.
- Year: 2010
- Journal: Mol Cell Biol 30 4901-21
- Applications: in vitro / siRNA / INTERFERin
- Cell types:
- Name: HeLa
Description: Human cervix epitheloid carcinoma cells
- Name: MCF 10A
Description: Human breast adenocarcinoma cells
Known as: MCF10A, MCF 10A
- Name: U-2 OS
Description: Human bone osteosarcoma
Known as: U2OS
- Name: HeLa
NF-kappaB activation is a critical component in the transcriptional response to hypoxia. However, the underlying mechanisms that control its activity under these conditions are unknown. Here we report that under hypoxic conditions, IkappaB kinase (IKK) activity is induced through a calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase 2 (CaMK2)-dependent pathway distinct from that for other common inducers of NF-kappaB. This process still requires IKK and the IKK kinase TAK1, like that for inflammatory inducers of NF-kappaB, but the TAK1-associated proteins TAB1 and TAB2 are not essential. IKK complex activation following hypoxia requires Ubc13 but not the recently identified LUBAC (linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex) ubiquitin conjugation system. In contrast to the action of other NF-kappaB inducers, IKK-mediated phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha does not result in its degradation. We show that this results from IkappaBalpha sumoylation by Sumo-2/3 on critical lysine residues, normally required for K-48-linked polyubiquitination. Furthermore, inhibition of specific Sumo proteases is sufficient to release RelA from IkappaBalpha and activate NF-kappaB target genes. These results define a novel pathway regulating NF-kappaB activation, important to its physiological role in human health and disease.