• Authors: Moyo N. et al.
  • Year: 2019
  • Journal: Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev 12 32-46
  • Applications: in vivo / saRNA / in vivo-jetPEI


Delivery of self amplifying RNA (saRNA) vaccines. saRNA was formulated with in vivo-jetPEI®. Mice were immunized intramuscularly with saRNA.


Focusing T cell responses on the most vulnerable parts of HIV-1, the functionally conserved regions of HIV-1 proteins, is likely a key prerequisite for vaccine success. For a T cell vaccine to efficiently control HIV-1 replication, the vaccine-elicited individual CD8+ T cells and as a population have to display a number of critical traits. If any one of these traits is suboptimal, the vaccine is likely to fail. Fine-tuning of individual protective characteristics of T cells will require iterative stepwise improvements in clinical trials. Although the second-generation tHIVconsvX immunogens direct CD8+ T cells to predominantly protective and conserved epitopes, in the present work, we have used formulated self-amplifying mRNA (saRNA) to deliver tHIVconsvX to the immune system. We demonstrated in BALB/c and outbred mice that regimens employing saRNA vaccines induced broadly specific, plurifunctional CD8+ and CD4+ T cells, which displayed structured memory subpopulations and were maintained at relatively high frequencies over at least 22 weeks post-administration. This is one of the first thorough analyses of mRNA vaccine-elicited T cell responses. The combination of tHIVconsvX immunogens and the highly versatile and easily manufacturable saRNA platform may provide a long-awaited opportunity to define and optimize induction of truly protective CD8+ T cell parameters in human volunteers.