• Authors: Hiemstra, S., Niemeijer, M., Koedoot, E., Wink, S., Klip, J. E., Vlasveld, M., de Zeeuw, E., van Os, B., White, A., Water, B. V.
  • Year: 2016
  • Journal: Chem Res Toxicol
  • Applications: in vitro / siRNA / INTERFERin
  • Cell type: Hep G2
    Description: Human hepatocarcinoma cells


Cells were reverse transfected with 50 nM of siRNA in combination with 0.3% of INTERFERin.


A quantitative dynamics pathway map of the Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress response and p53-related DNA damage response pathways as well as the cross-talk between these pathways has not systematically been defined. To allow the dynamic single cell evaluation of these pathways, we have used BAC-GFP recombineering to tag for each pathway's three key components: for the oxidative stress response, Keap1-GFP, Nrf2-GFP, and Srxn1-GFP; for the DNA damage response, 53bp1-GFP, p53-GFP, and p21-GFP. The dynamic activation of these individual components was assessed using quantitative high throughput confocal microscopy after treatment with a broad concentration range of diethyl maleate (DEM; to induce oxidative stress) and etoposide (to induce DNA damage). DEM caused a rapid activation of Nrf2, which returned to baseline levels at low concentrations but remained sustained at high concentrations. Srxn1-GFP induction and Keap1-GFP translocation to autophagosomes followed later, with upper boundaries reached at high concentrations, close to the onset of cell death. Etoposide caused rapid accumulation of 53bp1-GFP in DNA damage foci, which was later followed by the concentration dependent nuclear accumulation of p53-GFP and subsequent induction of p21-GFP. While etoposide caused activation of Srxn1-GFP, a modest activation of DNA damage reporters was observed for DEM at high concentrations. Interestingly, Nrf2 knockdown caused an inhibition of the DNA damage response at high concentrations of etoposide, while Keap1 knockdown caused an enhancement of the DNA damage response already at low concentrations of etoposide. Knockdown of p53 did not affect the oxidative stress response. Altogether, the current stress response landscapes provide insight in the time course responses of and cross-talk between oxidative stress and DNA-damage and defines the tipping points where cell injury may switch from adaptation to injury.